Chemistry

Graphene blended into perfection

News this week that graphene has been created in a kitchen blender made me want to talk about just how fantastic this carbon creation is.

At a molecular level, graphene looks like a long fence of chickenwire. It is a single layer of graphite, latticing into hexagons tipped with a head atom of carbon. Graphene is only one atom thick yet it is stiffer than diamond.

Furthermore, its structure has no band gap (the gap between the energy of an electron when it is bound to an atom) meaning that it can be used to make photovoltaic power cells not affected by electron loss.

If you get a sheet of graphene large enough, this would be the result. Image credit: exremetech.com

If you get a sheet of graphene large enough, this would be the result. Image credit: exremetech.com

While this alone is able to dazzle the scientific community, Dr Leonid Ponomarenko from  Manchester University has concluded graphene has “the highest current density (a million times that of copper) at room temperature; the highest intrinsic mobility (100 times more than in silicon); and conducts electricity in the limit of no electrons.”

Properties such as this would be crucial in the advancement of everyday technology used by all of us, especially if graphene could be utilized as a general electrical conductor.

If all of this information does not captivate your imagination, then ponder the fact that graphene is only one atom thick yet is visible with the naked eye. Whilst it is transparent (only absorbing around two percent of reflective light) you can still hold it against another object and be able to observe it, just like glass.

The BBC reported yesterday that graphene was made in a kitchen blender. The rapidly rotating blades of the blender were able to divide the layers of graphite and break up the carbon molecules into graphene.

It can be difficult to synthesise graphene because it is only one atom thick. So getting the layers to come apart has given some interesting solutions such as scientists using sticky tape to peel individual layers from a graphite pencil.

The blender study was published in the journal Nature Materials.

While this topic may seem novel, it is an important step to developing industrially scalable methods for making graphene.

This TEDx talk explains graphene science and its uses. Mikael Fogelstrom gives a great 20-minute lecture and I encourage you to watch it if you have the time:

[Cover Image via Wikimedia Commons]

Can one of the most popped pills on Earth help prevent cancer?

A milestone study conducted in 2012 has revealed that thousands of hereditary cancer cases leading to death can be prevented by taking a moderate dose of aspirin each day. The findings published in the Lancet Journal suggest that aspirin could prevent the deaths of over 10,000 cancer suffers if they ingest two 300 milligram pills each morning.

While this particular study was carried out on patients with Lynch syndrome (a genetic fault that has a high probability of leading to bowel cancer) researchers are confident that as many as 30,000 people with Lynch syndrome and bowel cancer will be aided from aspirin-related treatments. Leading the research, Professor Sir John Burn commented on the “overwhelmingly strong” indications from the procedure which spanned several years.

Beginning in 2007, two groups of patientswere administered either the test dose of aspirin or a bicarbonate placebo. Initially, no outcomes emerged during the test period. However in the years that followed, it became clear that aspirin had a direct impact on a patient’s bowel cancer. While it is still unclear exactly what causes the preventative effect of aspirin on cancers, researchers learned that it is related to the inhibition of the ‘COX’ enzymes in the colon.

Credit: Wikimedia Commons

Credit: Wikimedia Commons

 Cancer causes 25%of all deaths in the United Kingdom. A balanced diet, complemented by a reduced nicotine and alcohol intake, has been suggested to decrease the risk of developing cancer in the body. For many years, researchers have emphasized this lifestyle as the way forward. Meanwhile, the new study crunches some numbers relating specifically to the effects of aspirin. Best Health reported that “over 20 years, a person’s risk of dying from cancer fell by 3.49 percentage points if they took aspirin.” Because the risk of cancer increases with age, the elderly could benefit greatly from aspirin’s effects, shown by the number of cancer deaths of those over 65 “falling by 7.08 percentage points.”

The reliability of the findings is backed by universities across Britain and even external input from Kumamoto University in Japan has helped the results make it into the Lancet.

All the publicity of these landmark findings has attracted the attention of Professor Gerry Fowkes. He said: “Our research suggests that aspirin should not be prescribed to the general population, although it does have benefits for people with established conditions.” At least six previous studies, lead by Fowkes, have indicated that frequent doses of aspirin could lead to serious health implications and have prompted many of the “worried well” to take the pills.

Aspirin does have side effects. Taking aspirin for longer might have a bigger impact on cancer, but could also put such a person in great danger if they are injured and begin to bleed heavily: aspirin is partly comprised of an anti-coagulant, stopping the blood from clotting. In short, don’t start popping the pills just yet.

WebMD has a good round up of Aspirin’s benefits and drawbacks, it is worth a read. It covers how the drug may protect you in ways we do not yet understand but it is a complicated issue. To quote one segment:

” ‘Aspirin is the one drug I would take to a desert island with me,’ says Mark Fendrick, MD, an associate professor of internal medicine at the University of Michigan Medical School in Ann Arbor. ‘It costs two cents a day and its benefits are amazing. And if it had no side effects at all, we could give it to everybody.’ But Dr. Fendrick worries that the ever-growing list of diseases and disorders that aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) seem to combat drowns out information about the risks of this ‘wonder’ drug. “

What stand out about this study, and others that have followed it before is the continued mystery of our medicine. Aspirin is acetylsalicylic acid is an analgesic used to relieve mild to moderate pains. It was first created in 1853 by French scientist Charles Frederic Gerhardt. Its popularity remained strong until the advent of paracetamol but is still used by millions across the world to help with an afternoon migraine or a stiff thigh muscle. We have fallen into this idea that one drug is associated with one use. This study tells us to carry on investigating the medicine we are maybe too familiar with because we may just find something even more amazing that some convenient relief for a headache.

 

[Cover Image via Wikimedia Commons]